The first vehicle created in 1769 was powered by steam. The majority of today's vehicles run on gas, petrol or diesel. An increasing number of hybrid vehicles use a combination of gasoline and electricity. In future, however, the time will come when electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles that use neither gasoline or diesel will become mainstream.

The driving factor for change is the demand for technology to save on consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in an effort to make more effective use of the world's limited resources, as well as address the real issue of global warming. However, to promote widespread use of

JAMA Initiatives in Biofuel

Perodua CSR activity – Donate to flood victims in Malaysia



electric vehicles and hydrogen-fuel cell vehicles, it is essential to change our infrastructure in the form of recharging facilities and hydrogen stations. And it may take considerable time to make these facilities more widely available.

There is a method for saving on consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel. It entails using existing service stations. Saving fossil fuels can be achieved by mixing bio-alcohol or biodiesel (ester) with the gasoline or diesel fuel. These biofuels are a very effective means of reducing CO2 levels. What's more, popular use of these products can be promoted without modification to existing services stations.

In Asia, the introduction of biofuels including alcohol made from cassava and sugar cane, and biodiesel using oil extracted from oil palms is being promoted as part of initiatives to reduce consumption of fossil fuels, address global warming, and advance agricultural policies. In Thailand, E10, E20, and E85 - which are mixtures of ethanol and gasoline (10%, 20%, and 85%) - are already being sold. In Indonesia, B15 - a 15% mixture of biodiesel with diesel fuel - has been on sale since 2015… and B20 as of 2016. In Malaysia and Thailand, B7 is already being sold and the introduction of the high concentration B10 is under consideration.

The Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA) respects the introduction of biofuels by countries as an integral part of their energy policies and measures to address global warming. JAMA is contributing to the setting up of appropriate standards and conditions for biofuels in anticipation of their introduction to enable a smooth introduction without problems. The engine and emission control systems in vehicles have a structure similar to precision machining. If a vehicle is filled with inappropriate fuel, the vehicle is incapable of performing adequately and can actually cause damage to the engine and emission control system.

For example, when introducing biodiesel fuel there is a tendency for some of the components in the biodeisel fuel to precipitate at low temperature. Changing the form of the solution. When precipitation occurs, the fuel filter becomes clogged and cannot supply adequate fuel to the engine. In the worst case, there is a possibility that the engine will stop running. Furthermore, biofuel tends to deteriorate more easily than diesel fuel, which in-turn increases the possibility of forming solid material that cause problems similar to clogging of the fuel filter. Therefore, to prevent filters from becoming clogged requires appropriate adjustments to the volume of components in the biodiesel fuel that precipitate. Making adjustments to stabilize oxidization, and controlling the concentration of the biodiesel mixture to a volume that will not precipitate even in areas with low temperatures is essential.

Together with governments and industries of various countries, JAMA will continue its effort to establish appropriate biofuel standards.

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